How to create multiple builds for a single Android project using Gradle

For my Android project, I wanted to create different APKs that can be installed on the same device – specifically a debug version and a release one. There are two ways of doing this – one is using the concept of Build Flavors and the other is using Build Types. Build Types is more fitting in this case as Build Flavors is intended for major code differences such as having a different code base for release a version for the Play Store vs Amazon’s Store. According to this documentation:

One goal of the new build system is to enable creating different versions of the same application.

There are two main use cases:

Different versions of the same application
For instance, a free/demo version vs the “pro” paid application.
Same application packaged differently for multi-apk in Google Play Store.
See for more information.
A combination of 1. and 2.

The goal was to be able to generate these different APKs from the same project, as opposed to using a single Library Projects and 2+ Application Projects.

This will be helpful when I want to keep the release version with it’s data separate from the constantly changing currently-in-development version.

First step will be to modify the app’s gradle file to include a different suffix for the debug version (noticing also that in the defaultConfig the base application id is specified):

    defaultConfig {
        applicationId "com.sample.package"
        //other config values here
    buildTypes {
        debug {
            //other config values here
            debuggable true
            applicationIdSuffix '.debug'
            versionNameSuffix '-debug'
            //other config values here

Along with this you can now maintain separate code bases for debug vs release. In the /src directory there’ll be /main and /debug directories which contain the usual sub-directories (java, res, etc.) as well as their own AndroidManifest.xml file. You do not have to actually put anything in the /debug directory but this is where the magic happens. In the case of the manfiest file, the values you define for the debug version will be merged with the main version’s manifest file’s values. This will be useful when addressing some of the gotchas explained in a bit.

Now based on the build variant you select in Android Studio (release or debug) you’ll see either com.sample.package or com.sample.package.debug installed on the Android device being used.

There are some gotchas though. One being if you’re using/declaring a content provider in your manifest file. You’ll get an error complaining about the authority being used for your provider so while in your main manifest file you have this declared:

   android:syncable="false" />

You’ll have to override this by creating a new manifest file in your /debug directory (notice that you don’t have to set the package attribute in the manifest tag):

            android:syncable="false" />

Here we are explicitly declaring that the authority attribute should be replaced when merging with the main manifest file. See the Android tools documentation for reference and more options.

In case you happen to also be using a Sync Adapter like I am, you’ll also want to override a couple different things for that:

            tools:replace="android:authorities, android:label"
            android:label="Your Label (Debug)"
            android:syncable="true" >

This lets us specify the correct authority and sets a different label in the Sync settings UI. Copy the sync adapter’s xml file that it’s your main/res/xml directory and place it in debug/res/xml. Modify it to reflect the correct authority:


Throughout your code you’ll probably be referencing this authority string so it’s helpful to define it as a resource string especially now that you’ll need to differentiate between the debug and release version. So in both main/res/values/(somestringfile).xml and debug/res/values/(somestringfile).xml define:

<string name="sync_authority">com.sample.package.debug.sync</string>

You can now use this throughout your code without having to use any if statements or other logic to differentiate between the different versions. For example, in my sync adapter I use Google’s Tasks API and to get an auth token I call:

GoogleAuthUtil.getTokenWithNotification(mContext,, "oauth2:" + SCOPE, null, mContext.getString(R.string.sync_authority), b);

The correct sync_authority string will be used depending on what build variant you’re running (debug vs release). Lastly if you happen to be using one of Google’s APIs (such as Tasks), remember to add a new credential in your developer console for your debug build variant since the package name is going to be different. Make sure the package name matches the one created by your buildType config settings – in this example it should be:

Package name

That should do it!

One thing I have not figured out is how to make this work with IAB (in-app billing) api. Since your in-app products are listed with the main package name (com.sample.package in this example) – when attempting to make calls with the api, you’ll not see anything for your debug package (com.sample.package.debug in this example). And of course there are security errors if you try to retrieve skuDetails for example by using the com.sample.package string as the package name when you’re running the debug build variant.


Android HTML in a TextView

The documentation on supported HTML tags and HTML usage is lacking in general so after some trial & error with some googling I got things to finally work correctly including links.

In my case I was working with text from a resource file, specifically items in a string-array. Here’s a snippet from my :

            <p>The main purpose of this app is to help you get things done by focusing on the now. For more info on the techniques used and how you can get involved please visit the <a href=\"\">Do Now site</a> and <a href=\"\">Blog</a>. You can also follow on <a href=\"\">Twitter</a> and/or join the <a href=\"\">G+ community</a> for feedback and beta access.</p>
            <p>It’s basically split into two parts: your ‘Planned’ items and your ‘Unplanned’ items. For more info, see the sections below about each list. Since syncing with Google Tasks is possible, this app can be used along with another app that focuses on long term tasks and goals as long as that app also syncs with Google Tasks.</p>

Notice the <![CDATA[ ]]> tag that surrounds the HTML text. You’ll need this unless your text is very basic and no parsing is needed. The other thing to notice is escaping the quotes in the anchor tags. Without this, when the string is parsed, you’ll end up with href=yoururl which is invalid and will not work.

Next is loading the text. You’ll need to use the HTML class to parse the string:


You can set that as the text for TextView or save it to a Spanned type variable then set that as the text.

After setting the text using textView.setText(parsedHTML) use:


Your TextView should look like this (noting the android:linksClickable and android:textColorLink attributes):


Now your HTML should be parsed correctly and links working.

(Android) Custom list item highlight

Here’s a simple and direct approach to customizing the background of a selected item in a listview:

First, in your list item layout add android:background="?android:attr/activatedBackgroundIndicator to your parent view. For example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    <!-- View children here-->


Next, override the activeBackgroundIndicator style in your theme. i.e:

<style name="AppTheme" parent="Theme.AppCompat.Light.NoActionBar">
        <item name="android:activatedBackgroundIndicator">@drawable/activated_background</item>

You’ll notice we’re indicated a custom drawable to use: activated_background. Go ahead and create that in your drawable directory. It should look like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<selector xmlns:android="">
    <item android:state_activated="true" android:drawable="@color/row_activated" />
    <item android:state_focused="true" android:drawable="@color/row_activated" />
    <item android:state_pressed="true" android:drawable="@color/row_activated" />
    <item android:state_checked="true" android:drawable="@color/row_activated" />
    <item android:drawable="@android:color/transparent" />

Obviously you can customize it further by setting different colors depending on the state. @color/row_activated is just a color that was defined in colors.xml: <color name="row_activated">#7986CB</color>.

How do I focus? Better yet, why do I need to focus?

It is not that we have so little time but that we lose so much. … The life we receive is not short but we make it so; we are not ill provided but use what we have wastefully.
― Seneca, On the Shortness of Life

Before getting to the question of ‘how do I focus?’, I ask myself ‘why do I need to focus?’. When talking about productivity it’s simply because I need to get things done! Why do I need to be productive about getting things done? Because time! There never seems to be enough of it and it is a precious commodity that I need to use wisely. Time. Save time, have more time, use time wisely. It all comes down to time but there’s a direct link between time and focus.

It’s easy to argue that the ability to focus is one of the most important abilities to master.  Especially when you want to get things done and general productivity.  Writing things down, tagging, categorizing, etc. all help and are a part of the process but that’s just it – they’re a part of it.  I like to place emphasis on the part after I have written things down or used some task manager via web or phone.  It’s nothing new I think. I’ve been hearing about things that seem to have the same basic idea which again is to focus. So just write down, take note, save, clip, etc whatever you think you need to work on or look at later and forget it for now (it’ll be there wherever you saved it so don’t worry about it now).

If I have an hour to spend, I need to focus in order to make the most use out of that time. Now assuming I’ve written down all the things I need to get done – great but I only have an hour! If I have a lot to do I sometimes end up procrastinating especially if I know I don’t have much time and I assume I won’t get much done anyway (I have a masters in rationalizing my way into procrastinating). Obviously I need to look at it from the time perspective than the ‘sheer amount of stuff I have to do’ perspective. It becomes more manageable that way.

Okay so back to my hour. Focus on the hour. Just this hour. Not the other 23 in the day. What can I do in this hour? Well here’s my list of stuff I need to get done and I have a vague idea of how long each item in the list will take. What I can do is pick a bunch and throw them at the hour and see what fits. It’s pretty hard to calculate the perfect combination that will fit exactly in that hour but an easy way is to pick the smallest tasks first. Besides being easy, it also has the bonus of having the highest potential in terms of productivity if it means finishing as many things on my list as possible. It’s also a great option if you really do only have that free hour in your day to work on something outside the scope of what you do during your day. Or if you have just an hour before getting ready to go out or meet someone. You want to be on time and you want to make the most out of this hour and not just lounge around since you know you have to go in an hour anyway (my #1 excuse).

For example, I’m working on a big project. It’s overwhelming to think of all the different parts to it and the amount of work I have ahead of me. But I just think of the next hour. I break big tasks up into chunks (I’m pretty sure that’s a well known idea by now). Now I just go through the ones that I think will take the least amount of time until I have an estimated total duration of one hour. Those are the things I’m going to focus on. Forget everything else. One by one I get them done. Maybe I went a little under an hour, maybe I went a little over an hour but by focusing on just this one hour I managed to get a lot done. All those little tasks add up!

Going by the smallest tasks first isn’t always what you want especially if some things just have higher priority. Just factor that in. Want to put something in the front of the list even though it’s longer? Go ahead! As long as you stay focused. You’ll get it done and you’ll get the smaller things after it done too. By focusing on small chunks of time you’ll know if you’ll have time to finish this task – if not but you really need to work on it maybe it’ll push you into breaking this task up into smaller chunks (bonus!). This doesn’t mean, however, that you need to waste time going through your list and applying some complex priority system to it. The idea is to be able to prioritize in the moment and to not slow down. This might take some practice so maybe slow down a little at first but try to train this ability so it becomes second nature.

Why do you focus?